Thomas Aquinas` theory of 53 is based on the idea that if something is “natural,” that is, if it fulfills its function, it is morally acceptable, but there are a number of unanswered questions about naturalness. In 1245, Thomas Aquinas went to the University of Paris, where a major debate on Aristotle`s ideas took place. The young Thomas Aquinas studied under Albert the Great, who sided with those who believed that Aristotle`s worldview was compatible with Christianity. Before the time of Jesus, the Greeks developed concepts about how the world worked and how people behaved. Aristotle, died 322 BC. J.-C., was an Athenian philosopher who wrote about science, ethics, politics and almost every other field of knowledge. OâConnor offers a solution to the first problem by noting that Thomas Aquinas was able to argue that humans are subject to natural law in two ways. The first is through an internal motive principle and the second is to know what the law of nature is (OâConnor, 1967). Man thus follows the natural law partly by unconscious inclination, which explains the descriptive element of the “law”. The last type of law provided by Thomas Aquinas is the divine law. Divine law differs from eternal law in that eternal law is the set of divine archetypes found in the minds of the gods, divine law is merely a series of revelations made by God concerning moral scenarios (Lisska, 1997). Because of the difficulties humans can often have in interpreting natural law, and because a person based on this understanding of natural law thrives, according to Thomas Aquinas, divine intervention may sometimes be necessary. Thus, God may sometimes have a “moral responsibility” to reveal the fundamental principles of natural law in order to make human morality possible.
Charles Darwin`s theory of evolution also caused problems and criticisms of the concept of natural law. The foundations of Thomas Aquinas` doctrine of natural law are contained in the so-called legal treatise of Thomas` masterpiece, the Summa Theologiae, which includes questions 90 to 108 in the first part of the second part of the three-part sum.  Thomists have rightly expressed reservations about the process of surgical extraction of doctrine on these issues (or often the stricter philosophical questions 90-97) and presenting it as Thomas` thought on natural law before the courts. In fact, there are fewer ways to distort Thomas` theory if one reads the treatise on law carefully in the context of the conceptual architecture of the Summa Theologiae as a whole. Thomas Aquinas is generally regarded as the preeminent Western theoretician of natural law, critically inheriting the main traditions of natural law or the thought of quasi-natural law in antiquity (including the Platonic and especially Aristotelian and Stoic traditions) and systematically linking elements of these traditions as part of a metaphysics of creation and divine providence. His theory established the conditions for the later theory of natural law. In 1267, Thomas Aquinas completed a work of government inspired by Aristotle`s policy. Thomas Aquinas stated: “Nevertheless, it is natural for man, more than any other animal, to be a social and political animal, to live in groups. He presented logical evidence of how the obvious fact of human language allows individuals to argue with each other. When human rights defenders promote rights that are not enshrined in natural law,.
God, the ultimate cause of all being, action and development in all that is, is nothing other than caring for the community of creation, and as the universal Creator, He has supreme authority over His intelligent creatures. Is he not the legislator par excellence? It is, Thomas thinks, because God perfectly fulfills the condition for this designation. Thomas develops an earlier theological tradition, but makes a direct metaphysical point, asserting that we have a law made by God that is equal to His own nature. It is the eternal law (lex aeterna) by which the divine intellect creatively conceives all creatures and leads them to a common goal (the common end of the universe) by proclaiming this eternal order of its reason in due time by the act of creating beings and equipping them with spontaneous natural inclinations to move towards their own perfection in the context of the universe and its general and unified perfection. In the case of Thomas Aquinas` theory of natural law, these laws come from a God who cares for the entire universe, making natural law part of divine providence (Murphy, 2011). The laws of nature are therefore found first and completely in the eternal law. The eternal law is therefore God`s perfect wisdom and summarizes His entire plan for all the events and actions that can and will occur in the universe. Anthony Lisska further clarifies this comment by stating: “The eternal law is fundamentally a metaphysical explanation of what exists.
It serves as a metaphysical schema or model of existing beings” (Lisska, 1997). The writings of St. Thomas Aquinas, which combine reason and faith, became the basis of official Roman Catholic doctrine (known as “Thomism”). Moreover, his forward-thinking political ideas regarding natural law, unjust rulers, and rebellion influenced European Enlightenment philosophers such as John Locke and even Americans such as Thomas Jefferson and Martin Luther King. Since Thomas Aquinas, notions of what is natural have changed due to cultural changes between generations. In society, we define what is morally just and natural, based on what is culturally acceptable. For example, in the past, it was not natural to be h********l or for women and men to be considered equal, but society has changed its mind. 18Natural law does not produce an external set of written rules for our inspection, but it produces general rules that any rational actor can recognize, simply because he is rational. For example, for Thomas Aquinas, it is not that we need to check whether we should pursue good and avoid evil, since this is only part of how we already think about things. Thomas Aquinas gives other examples of primary commandments: 58Then we could raise questions about DDE.
Let`s go back to our abortion example. For Thomas Aquinas, it is morally acceptable to remove the uterus, even though we know that the fetus will die in the process. What is morally unacceptable is the intention to kill the fetus by removing the uterus. At first glance, this seems logical; We have an intuitive idea of what DDE is. However, if we look closely, it is far from clear. Natural law, according to Thomas Aquinas, has certain fundamental and obvious commandments or commandments that are known to any human being with a well-functioning intellect and a minimum of experience of the world. To paraphrase Thomas, first and foremost, the commandment is that “all good [i.e., all good” [i.e. That which perfects human nature must be pursued [the proper object of human action], and the opposite of that good, evil, must be avoided in all human actions. Other basic rules, but with specific content, would be such as: “physical health is a good to be sought and a physical harm to be avoided” or “knowledge is a good to be pursued and ignorance and lies to be avoided” or “friendship is a good to be pursued and things that oppose it must be avoided”.  28 years ago, I spoke with a church pastor.
He told me about a case where a married man came to him for advice on whether to end an affair he was having. The man`s reasoning was: “I have an affair that seems so right, we are both very much in love and God would definitely want the best for me! How could it be wrong if we are so happy? 60Finally, we ask ourselves whether it is easy to know what to actually do with the help of natural law. We hope that our moral theory will give us a direction for our lives. One might think that this is precisely the role of a moral theory. But how could it work in this case? In this scenario, our basic inclinations and possessions that guide our actions according to natural law would be good for us, whether God has informed us or not.